Ионосфера

Ионосфера - верхний слой атмосферы (на расстоянии 80-500 км от поверхности Земли), выделяемый в пределах термосферы.

И. отличается значительным количеством ионизированным молекул и атомов атмосферных газов и свободных электронов.

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Computational Methods for the Atmosphere and the Oceans, Volume 14: Special Volume (Handbook of Numerical Analysis) / This book provides a survey of the frontiers of research in the numerical modeling and mathematical analysis used in the study of the atmosphere and oceans. The details of the current practices in global atmospheric and ocean models, the assimilation of observational data into such models and the nuComputational Methods for the Atmosphere and the Oceans, Volume 14: Special Volume (Handbook of Numerical Analysis)
This book provides a survey of the frontiers of research in the numerical modeling and mathematical analysis used in the study of the atmosphere and ...